Corporate and Other

Income from operations for Corporate and Other was as follows:

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($ in millions)




Corporate headquarters and stewardship




Corporate research and development




Corporate real estate








Total Corporate and Other




In 2013, Corporate headquarters and stewardship costs increased by $31 million, primarily due to increases in personnel expenses and additional investments in information systems infrastructure. In 2012, Corporate headquarters and stewardship costs were in line with 2011.

In 2013, Corporate research and development costs totaled $187 million, marginally lower than the costs reported in 2012. Corporate research and development costs decreased $10 million in 2012, as the amount spent on the growth fund was lower in 2012 than in 2011.

Corporate real estate primarily includes the income from property rentals and gains from the sale of real estate properties. In 2013, 2012 and 2011, income from operations in Corporate real estate includes gains of $23 million, $26 million, $37 million, respectively, from the sales of real estate property in various countries.

“Other” consists of operational costs of our Global Treasury Operations, operating income or loss in non-core businesses, and certain other charges. In 2013, “Other” included primarily certain legal compliance cases, certain environmental expenses, acquisition-related expenses, the loss on sale of a non-core business and the impairment of certain investments. In 2012, “Other” primarily included the release of a compliance-related provision, partially offset by a provision for certain pension claims in the U.S. and charges from the impairments of our investments in the shares of a public company. In 2011, “Other” included losses from the non-core distributed energy business in the United Kingdom, an impairment of our investment in the shares of a public company, as well as charges related to the deconsolidation of a Russian subsidiary and a sale of another Russian subsidiary.