Liquidity and capital resources

Principal sources of funding

In 2011, 2010 and 2009, we met our liquidity needs principally using cash from operations, bank borrowings, the proceeds from sales of marketable securities and proceeds from the issuance of debt instruments (bonds and commercial papers).

During 2011, 2010 and 2009, our financial position was strengthened by the positive cash flow from operating activities of $3,612 million, $4,197 million and $4,027 million, respectively.

Our net cash is shown in the table below:


December 31, ($ in millions)



Cash and equivalents



Marketable securities and short-term investments



Short-term debt and current maturities of long-term debt



Long-term debt



Net cash (defined as the sum of the above lines)



Despite the cash generated by operations during 2011 of $3,612 million, net cash at December 31, 2011, decreased compared to December 31, 2010, primarily due to the cash outflow for the acquisition of businesses ($4,020 million), and the payment of dividends ($1,569 million). See “Financial Position,” “Net cash used in investing activities” and “Net cash used in financing activities” for further details.

Our Group Treasury Operations is responsible for providing a range of treasury management services to our group companies, including investing cash in excess of current business requirements. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, the proportion of our aggregate “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and short-term investments” managed by our Group Treasury Operations amounted to approximately 60 percent and 70 percent, respectively.

In January 2011, we sold the $1,789 million money market funds acquired in 2010, and used $4.3 billion of our cash in connection with the purchase of Baldor and the repayment of debt assumed upon acquisition. Up until mid-2011, we continued a strategy of investing our cash (in excess of current business requirements) predominantly in short-term time deposits with maturities of less than 3 months. However, in late summer of 2011, as credit risk concerns in the eurozone economic area increased, we diversified out of eurozone bank exposures. As the crisis deepened and uncertainty grew, we restricted the counterparties with whom we were prepared to place cash, such that we reduced our deposits with banks in the eurozone. Furthermore, Group Treasury Operations let any investments in approved eurozone government securities (Germany, France, the Netherlands) mature to be replaced by liquid U.S. treasuries.

In 2010, the overall investment strategy was to maintain diversification and flexibility in our investment portfolio through a mix of government securities, highly-rated corporate short-dated paper and time deposits of short duration with banks. During the second quarter of 2010, we began to invest in AAA-rated liquidity (money market) funds in order to diversify our investment base and increase the yield on our investments. At December 31, 2010, such investment represented $1,789 million of the total marketable securities and short-term investments balance of $2,713 million in the table above.

We actively monitor credit risk in our investment portfolio and hedging activities. Credit risk exposures are controlled in accordance with policies approved by our senior management to identify, measure, monitor and control credit risks. We closely monitor developments in the credit markets and make appropriate changes to our investment policy as deemed necessary. The rating criteria we require for our counterparts have remained unchanged during 2011 as follows: a minimum rating of A/A2 for our banking counterparts, while the minimum required rating for investments in short-term corporate paper is A-1/P-1. In addition to rating criteria, we have specific investment parameters and approved instruments as well as restricting the types of investments we make. These parameters are closely monitored on an ongoing basis and amended as we consider necessary.

We believe the cash flows generated from our business, supplemented, when necessary, through access to the capital markets (including short-term commercial paper) and our credit facilities and term loan agreement, are sufficient to support business operations, capital expenditures, business acquisitions, the payment of dividends to shareholders and contributions to pension plans. Due to the nature of our operations, our cash flow from operations generally tends to be weaker in the first half of the year than in the second half of the year. Consequently, we believe that our ability to obtain funding from these sources will continue to provide the cash flows necessary to satisfy our working capital and capital expenditure requirements, as well as meet our debt repayments and other financial commitments for the next 12 months. See “Disclosures about contractual obligations and commitments.”

Debt and interest rates

Total outstanding debt was as follows:


December 31, ($ in millions)



Short-term debt including current maturities of long-term debt (including bonds)



Long-term debt:



– bonds (excluding portion due within one year)



– other long-term debt



Total debt



The decrease in short-term debt in 2011 was due to the maturity of our EUR 650 million 6.5% Instruments ($865 million at date of repayment) offset by the issuance of commercial paper ($435 million outstanding at December 31, 2011) while the increase in long-term debt in 2011 was primarily due to the new bonds issued (see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements).

Our debt has been obtained in a range of currencies and maturities and on various interest rate terms. We use derivatives to reduce the interest rate exposures arising on certain of our debt. For example, we use interest rate swaps to effectively convert fixed rate debt into floating rate liabilities.

After considering the effects of interest rate swaps, the effective average interest rate on our floating rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $1,875 million and our fixed rate long-term debt (including current maturities) of $1,432 million was 1.6 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively. This compares with an effective rate of 3.2 percent for floating rate long-term debt of $1,919 million and 5.6 percent for fixed-rate long-term debt of $139 million at December 31, 2010.

For a discussion of our use of derivatives to modify the characteristics of our individual bond issuances, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Credit facilities

We have a $2 billion multicurrency revolving credit facility, maturing 2015. No amount was drawn under the credit facility at December 31, 2011 and 2010. The facility is for general corporate purposes and serves as a back-stop facility to our commercial paper programs to the extent that we issue commercial paper under the programs described below. The facility contains cross-default clauses whereby an event of default would occur if we were to default on indebtedness, as defined in the facility, at or above a specified threshold.

In February 2012, we entered a $4 billion credit agreement for an initial term of 364 days to provide bridge financing for our planned acquisition of Thomas & Betts Corporation.

Neither the credit facility or the term credit agreement contain significant covenants that would restrict our ability to pay dividends or raise additional funds in the capital markets. For further details of the credit facility and the new term credit agreement, see “Note 12 Debt” to our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Commercial paper

We have in place three commercial paper programs:

  • a $1 billion commercial paper program for the private placement of USD-denominated commercial paper in the United States,
  • a $1 billion Euro-commercial paper program for the issuance of commercial paper in a variety of currencies, and
  • a 5 billion Swedish krona program (equivalent to approximately $722 million, using December 31, 2011, exchange rates), allowing us to issue short-term commercial paper in either Swedish krona or euro.

At December 31, 2011, $435 million was outstanding under the $1 billion program in the United States. No amounts were outstanding under any of these programs at December 31, 2010.

European program for the issuance of debt

At December 31, 2011 and 2010, $910 million and $1,828 million, respectively, of our total debt outstanding, were debt issuances under this program. During 2011, the program was updated and increased to allow the issuance of up to (the equivalent of) $8 billion (previously $5.25 billion) in certain debt instruments. The terms of the program do not obligate any third party to extend credit to us and the terms and possibility of issuing any debt under the program are determined with respect to, and as of the date of issuance of, each debt instrument.

Credit ratings

Credit ratings are assessments by the rating agencies of the credit risk associated with ABB and are based on information provided by us or other sources that the rating agencies consider reliable. Higher ratings generally result in lower borrowing costs and increased access to capital markets. Our ratings are of “investment grade” which is defined as Baa3 (or above) from Moody’s and BBB- (or above) from Standard & Poor’s.

At December 31, 2011, our long-term company ratings were A2 and A from Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s, respectively, compared to A3 and A at December 31, 2010.

Limitations on transfers of funds

Currency and other local regulatory limitations related to the transfer of funds exist in a number of countries where we operate, including Algeria, China, Egypt, India, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and Venezuela. Funds, other than regular dividends, fees or loan repayments, cannot be readily transferred offshore from these countries and are therefore deposited and used for working capital needs locally. In addition, there are certain countries where, for tax reasons, it is not considered optimal to transfer the cash offshore. As a consequence, these funds are not available within our Group Treasury Operations to meet short-term cash obligations outside the relevant country. The above described funds are reported as cash in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, but we do not consider these funds immediately available for the repayment of debt outside the respective countries where the cash is situated, including those described above. At December 31, 2011 and 2010, the balance of “Cash and equivalents” and “Marketable securities and other short-term investments” under such limitations (either regulatory or sub-optimal from a tax perspective) totaled approximately $1,530 million and $1,745 million, respectively.

During 2011, we continued to direct our subsidiaries in countries with restrictions to place such cash with our core banks or investment grade banks, in order to minimize credit risk on such cash positions. Consequently, cash placed with non-rated or sub-investment grade banks has remained at less than 5 percent of cash outside of our Group Treasury Operations. We continue to closely monitor the situation to ensure bank counterparty risks are minimized.

Financial review

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